I took IND ARTS as a Freshman that year...the old High School Building had built a NEW basketball Gym...so..the original was converted into a classroom.   Original bleachers were removed..the Balcony above them walled off, with windows added...The NEW Classroom in the Balcony became  the Drafting Classroom...where we sit at drafting tables and learn to draw..

The old Gym floor was now concrete..there were a series of 4 person benches...square shaped, a quick acting vise at each corner, the base was metal filled with lockers...Scorer's Table area was turned into a Tool Crib.    Shop Floor was also equipped with all sorts of power tools made at the nearby Rockwell Factory...there was an area set aside to practize metalworking. foundry work, and welding. 

However.....as incoming Freshman..we only got to learn with hand tools....until we passed the Test.    We were given a set of worksheets..each had a diagram of 2 or 3 wood working joints.   Like this for Page#1..
Once you completed a wood joint, you entered the date completed..and then the Teacher would inspect the joint, and post a Grade in the space provided..

Hand tools only..and YOU had to sign them out at the Tool Crib...and sign them back in at the end of the 30 minute class.   You also spent you turn IN the Tool Crib.  Plus there was at least one day a week up in Drafting Class. 

Thinking about doing a "Class" here...IF people want to follow along..
Show me a picture, I'll build a project from that

I will only if I can chew gum, no detention or homework and pencils are furnished. All my pencils are under a bench or somewhere?
If you continue to cut corners, you'll end up going in circles!

It's my thumb so I'll hit it if I want to!
Joint #1...a simple Butt joint, right...easy as can be....depends on how well you do with a hand saw...
Laid out ..
With the knife, carry the lines over the 2 edges...
then check that the two "points" from the knife are square to each other...
Knife that line...get out a handsaw..
You are told to watch that reflection on the saw's plate, to help you saw straight and plumb...you are also told to cut on the waste side of the lines
Support the piece being cut off until the cut is done...stand the cut off piece on top of the remainder
Check for square..
And check for any gaps..
Grade? a "B"

Because you will need the cut off piece and a second such 6" long piece for the next joint..do so now..
Stay tuned...
Show me a picture, I'll build a project from that
Wood Joint #2
Rebated Corner...
Saved the 2 from Joint #1...cut a rebate on the end of each..
By sawing the shoulder cuts...lay out the end grain cut...use a wide chisel to split off the waste...carefully watching how the grain behaves...do not split the waste off in one go...nibble your way to the lay out line...pare as needed.
Dry fit, check with a square, looking for any gaps...

Grade?   Gave it a "B"

Stay tuned...plenty more to do..
Show me a picture, I'll build a project from that
Wood Joint #3...was merely adding a mitered corner to hide any end grain from showing...Basically you'd cut one part completely..then trace around it, and onto the matching part...pare until...
Kind of a fussy joint...was hard to saw the miter sections..and the rebates as well...and NOT have gaps..
Grade?   This one got a "C"...due to gaposis...

Wood Joint #4...Mitered Corner
Was just a simple Mitered corner....Back then, the woodshop did have a version of this..
Or either the Black Plastic , or, all wood versions....mine?
Now...several things..one:  You had to swing the saw around until it hits the 45 degree detent..and. make sure it stays locked in place..Two:  You stood the part up on edge, lowered the saw SLOWLY down on top of the part..Three: You had a light grip with the right hand...no death grips allowed ( distorts the cut by bending the saw) Four: You had to hold the part in place with the other hand, well away from the cutting area of the saw, and, make sure the part does not move during the cut.  Simple? Ok

Squares: Since we are now in the realm of Miters...this was the squares we had to use..
And they were indeed checked..because, some squares got a wee bit worn ( Knifing a line?)
Note a gap between these 2 Stanley squares.   We also learned to check the square before use..
Strike a line across, flip the square over, and strike a second line as close to the first line...both should be parallel to each other...we checked both the top of the blade and the bottom of the blade..

Used the Red Square to lay out the next Joint..
Pencil is fine, can be knifed IF you want..take this to the Mitre Box & Saw..make the cut..bring both pieces back to the bench..
Cut-off is turned around, but should result in a square corner...Repeat this for the other half of Joint #5..
There isn't to be any gaps in this joint, and it is to be square...inside and outside corners...Grade?   I gave this a "B" because of a small gap ...

Stay tuned..
Show me a picture, I'll build a project from that
Ok...Worksheet #2, Wood Joint #6..Half Lap Joint..
Hmm..located Part #2 in the center of Part #1..
Confirm by measuring in from both ends, to see IF they match..

You can use just a pencil...but, IF you use the knife to mark the lines, knife to the "inside" of the lines..NOT IN the lines like I did..
Because the saw will follow the knifed line. Next, set the gauge to the center of the edge..
This will be the depth stop line...Then saw of your choice..
Include a cut in the middle, to help remove the waste...either with /against the grain, or..
Across the grain like this...which tends to cause break-outs IF you don't pare from both sides...

IF a Router plane is available...like a Stanley No. 71-1/2....use that for final depth...and ensure things are flat and to proper depth..
Next..part 2..
Use Part 1 to lay out where to cut and chop the waste..
Double check this line right here...then, saw the shoulder..by laying out the lines to cut to..
Trying NOT to follow that wavy lines across the end grain...if in doubt, leave the line.

Then a mallet and a wide (24mm) chisel to carefully split off the waste...no rush...while keeping an eye on where the grain is going...when you have pared to the lines, stop and check the fit with a Square..
Mine was square, but had a gap...Grade?  "C+"....the gap was from knifing in the lines, NOT inside them...so I was a blade thickness too wide..The saw split the lines, not leaving them..gap was about a 1/32" wide...

Stay tuned...once I get Worksheet No.3...we'll see what is next..
Show me a picture, I'll build a project from that
Worksheet #3 has been handed out..only has 2 wood joints to make, this time around..
We'll see how my leg holds up today...it does NOT like going up a set of stairs..Need to get things set up in the shop...

As for Joint #7...
Parts being used, I won't be able to run the Stanley No. 45 to make these bead details..these were for a Frame, for a raised panel door..
Made out of Ash..for this wall hanger..

But, using 6" long pieces of Pine...I'll keep thing plain..
Show me a picture, I'll build a project from that
Joint #7...Mitered half lap...layout..
Look carefully...you will see the layout line for the miter cut, as well.

Saw was used to do cross cuts at the shoulders
And the MitreBox & Saw to make the miter cuts....chisel to split of the waste..dry fit..
And from the show face...

Grade? Meh...have done better..maybe a "C"?

Cut 2 more 6" long blanks..make sure the ends are square...and set up a different marking gauge..
A Stanley No. 77 Mortise Marking Gauge..and do a bit of layout work for Wood Joint #8..
Note the computer added red "X"s?   Marks out the waste to be removed...
Stay tuned....
Show me a picture, I'll build a project from that
Hand saws: Back then, we were using a Stanley Miter Box saw, the ones with the black plastic box, and black plastic handles..yeah, THOSE.   Closest I have IN my shop, right now is..
A Blue handle KOBALT...I did not have the 2 backsaws I now use all the time...
Besides the 2 layout lines being cut, I added a couple "relief cuts"..to help the chisel remove most of the waste...

Chisels...Was mainly by Stanley back then...the Yellow Handled kind...in sets, of course...today?
Will be the 6pc Harbor Freight set...mainly a 1/4", a 3/4", and a 1-1/2" wide chisel...

THIS time around, I remembered to knife on the waste side of these lines...
3/4" chisel to rough out the waste, to just short of the layout line for depth...we have other ways....
The Tool Crib back then did indeed have a Router Plane...set the cutter to final depth...plane towards the middle from each edge..wide chisel for trouble spots along the cut lines..

One face is done...flip this over, and repeat on the other face all the above...once BOTH faces are done...lay out for a slot..
The goal here was to rip saw inside the lines (Barely,,,saw was a "Wanderer")  leaving a bit to be pared smooth...then the 1/4" chisel was chopping down towards the center of the board, from both edges..( like doing a through Mortise) until a dry fit could be attempted..
Had to use a mallet to assemble/disassemble, re-assemble until it fit like this,,,at the same time I was paring any high spots I could get to...finally...

Checking for square..inside..
And from the top..
Grade?   Maybe a "B"...

This joint was nice to join an apron ( curved or straight) to a center leg...as in those semi-circle Tables...with 3 legs.."Deni-Lume", I think was the spelling..

Drafting Class in a little bit...have 3 more joints to draw up, for the next Worksheet...
Stay tuned..
Show me a picture, I'll build a project from that
Worksheet #4 is in....
Today being a Monday...will have to wait and see IF the shop opens today...
Stay tuned...
Show me a picture, I'll build a project from that
Shop Class, Fall of 1968

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